Asphalt shingle: A bituminous waterproofing agent applied to roofing materials during manufacturing.
Built-up roof: A flat or low-sloped roof consisting of multiple layers of asphalt and ply sheets.
Caulk: To fill a joint with mastic or asphalt cement to prevent leaks.
Coating: A layer of viscous asphalt applied to the base material into which granules or other surfacing is embedded.
Course: A row of shingles or roll roofing running the length of the roof.
Cutout: The open portions of a strip shingle between the tabs.
Deck: The surface installed over the supporting framing members to which the roofing is applied.
Dormer: A framed window unit projecting through the sloping plane of a roof.
Downspout: A pipe for draining water from roof gutters. Also called a leader.
Drip edge: A non-corrosive, non-staining material used along the eaves and rakes to allow water run-off to drip clear of underlying construction.
Eaves: The horizontal, lower edge of a sloped roof.
Edging strips: Boards nailed along eaves and rakes after cutting back existing wood shingles to provide secure edges for reroofing with asphalt shingles.
Felt: Fibrous material saturated with asphalt and used as an underlayment or sheathing paper.
Flashing: Pieces of galvanized metal (usually aluminum or copper) used to prevent seepage of water into a building around any intersection or projection in a roof such as vent pipes, chimneys, adjoining walls, dormers and valleys.
Free-tab shingles: Shingles that do not contain factory-applied strips or spots of self-sealing adhesive.
Gable: The upper portion of a sidewall that comes to a triangular point at the ridge of a sloping roof.
Gable roof: A type of roof containing sloping planes of the same pitch on each side of the ridge, with a gable at each end.
Gambrel roof: A type of roof containing two sloping planes of different pitch on each side of the ridge. The lower plane has a steeper slope than the upper. Contains a gable at each end.
Granules: Ceramic-coated colored crushed rock that is applied to the exposed surface of asphalt roofing products.
Gutter: The trough that channels water from the eaves to the downspouts.
Hip roof: A type of roof containing sloping planes of the same pitch on each of four sides.
Hip shingles: Shingles used to cover the inclined external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes.
Ice dam: Condition formed at the lower roof edge by the thawing and re-freezing of melted snow on the overhang. This can force water up and under shingles, causing leaks.
Interlocking shingles: Individual shingles that mechanically fasten to each other to provide wind resistance.
Laminated shingles: Strip shingles containing more than one layer of tabs to create extra thickness. Also called three-dimensional shingles or architectural shingles.
Lap: To cover the surface of one shingles or roll with another.
Lap cement: An asphalt-based cement used to adhere overlapping plies of roll roofing.
Mansard roof: A type of roof containing two sloping planes of different pitch on each of four sides. The lower plane has a much steeper pitch than the upper, often approaching vertical. Contains no gables.
Mineral-surfaced roofing: Asphalt shingles and roll roofing that are covered with granules.
No-cutout shingles: Shingles consisting of a single, solid tab with no cutouts.
Overhang: That portion of the roof structure that extends beyond the exterior walls of a building.
Pitch: The degree of roof incline expressed as the ratio of the rise, in feet, to the span, in feet.
Ply: The number of layers of roofing: i.e. one-ply, two-ply.
Rafter: The supporting framing member immediately beneath the deck, sloping from the ridge to the wall plate.
Rake: The inclined edge of a sloped roof over a wall.
Ridge: The uppermost, horizontal external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes.
Ridge cap: Specially formed shingles used to cover the horizontal external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes.
Rise: The vertical distance from the eaves line to the ridge.
Roll roofing: Asphalt roofing products manufactured in roll form.
Run: The horizontal distance from the eaves to a point directly under the ridge. One half the span.
Self-sealing shingles: Shingles containing factory-applied strips or spots of self-sealing adhesive.
Self-sealing strip or spot: Factory-applied adhesive that bonds shingle courses together when exposed to the heat of the sun after application.
Shading: Slight differences in shingle color that may occur as a result of normal manufacturing operations.
Sheathing: Exterior grade boards used as a roof deck material.
Shed roof: A roof containing only one sloping plane. Has no hips, ridges, valleys or gables.
Slope: The degree of roof incline expressed as the ratio of the rise, in inches, to the run, in feet.
Soffit: The finished underside of the eaves.
Stack: A vent pipe that penetrates the roof.
Span: The horizontal distance from eaves to eaves.
Square: A unit of roof measure covering 100 square feet. A roof with a field area of 2,500 square feet would be called a 25 square roof.
Starter strip: Asphalt roofing applied at the eaves that provide protection by filling in the spaces under the cutouts and joints of the first course of shingles.
Tab: The exposed portion of strip shingles defined by cutouts.
Underlayment: Asphalt saturated felt used beneath roofing to provide additional protection for the deck.
Valley: The internal angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes.
Vent: Any outlet for air that protrudes through the roof deck such as a pipe or stack. Any device installed on the roof, gable or soffit for the purpose of ventilating the underside of the roof deck.
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